Diffusion of innovations

Diffusion of innovations

Автор(ы): Rogers Everett M.

06.10.2007
Год изд.: 1983
Издание: 3
Описание: The present book is cast in a theoretical framework involving the concepts of information and uncertainty. Information about innovations is often sought from near-peers, especially information about their subjective evaluations of the innovation. This information exchange about a new idea occurs through a convergence process involving interpersonal networks. The diffusion of innovations, thus, is essentially a social process in which subjectively perceived information about a new idea is communicated.
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List of Case Illustrations [xiii]
Preface
Chapter 1 ELEMENTS OF DIFFUSION [1]
WHAT IS DIFFUSION? [5]
FOUR MAIN ELEMENTS IN THE DIFFUSION
OF INNOVATIONS [10]
1. The Innovation [11]
2. Communication Channels [17]
3. Time [20]
4. A Social System [24]
SUMMARY [34]
Chapter 2 A HISTORY OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [38]
THE BEGINNINGS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH IN EUROPE [40]
Gabriel Tardeand The laws of Imitation [40]
The British and German-Austrian Diffusionists [41]
THE RISE OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH TRADITIONS [42]
Paradigms and Invisible Colleges [43]
The Anthropology Research Tradition [46]
Early Sociology [50]
Rural Sociology [57]
Education [62]
Public Health and Medical Sociology [65]
Communication [72]
Marketing [74]
Geography [77]
General Sociology [78]
A TYPOLOGY OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [79]
SUMMARY [85]
Chapter 3 CONTRIBUTIONS AND CRITICISMS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [87]
THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND STATUS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH TODAY. CRITICISMS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [91]
The Pro-Innovation Bias ofDiffusion Research [92]
The Individual-Blame Bias in Diffusion Research [103]
The Recall Problem in Diffusion Research [112]
The Issue of Equality in the Diffusion of Innovations [113]
GENERALIZING ABOUT DIFFUSION VIA МЕТА-RESEARCH [126]
Relating Theory and Research at the Middle Range [128]
The Oversimplification of Two-Concept Generalizations [130]
The Reliability ofDiffusion Generalizations [131]
SUMMARY [133]
Chapter 4 THE GENERATION OF INNOVATIONS [134]
THE INNOVATION-DEVELOPMENT PROCESS [135]
1. Recognizing a Problem or Need [135]
2. Basic and Applied Research [138]
3. Development [139]
4. Commercialization [143]
5. Diffusion and Adoption [144]
6. Consequences [149]
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, EQUALITY, AND INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT [153]
TRACING THE INNOVATION-DEVELOPMENT PROCESS [155]
Shortcomings ofthe Tracer Studies [157]
Questions for Future Research [157]
CONVERTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE [158]
The Agricultural Extension Model [159]
Decentralized Diffusion Systems [160]
SUMMARY [161]
Chapter 5 THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS [163]
A MODEL OF THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS [163]
KNOWLEDGE STAGE [164]
Which Comes First, Needs or Awareness of an Innovation ? [164]
Types ofKnowledge about an Innovation [167]
Early Versus Late Knowers oflnnovations [168]
PERSUASION STAGE [169]
DECISION STAGE [172]
IMPLEMENTATION STAGE [174]
The End of Implementation [175]
Re-Invention [175]
CONFIRMATION STAGE [184]
Dissonance [185]
Discontinuance [186]
ARE THERE STAGES IN THE PROCESS? [191]
Evidence ofthe Stages [192]
Variance andProcess Research [194]
COMMUNICATION CHANNELS BY STAGES
IN THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS [197]
Categorizing Communication Channels [197]
Mass Media Versus Interpersonal Channels [198]
Cosmopolite Versus Localite Channels [200]
COMMUNICATION CHANNELS BY ADOPTER
CATEGORIES [201]
THE INNOVATION-DECISION PERIOD [202]
Rate of Awareness-Knowledge and Rate of Adoption. [202]
Length ofthe Period by Adopter Category [203]
SUMMARY [206]
Chapter 6 ATTRIBUTES OF INNOVATIONS AND THEIR RATE OF ADOPTION [210]
ATTRIBUTES OF INNOVATIONS [211]
RELATIVE ADVANTAGE [213]
Economic factors and Rate of Adoption [214]
Status Aspects oflnnovations [215]
Relative Advantage and Rate of Adoption [217]
Effects of Incentives [279]
COMPATIBILITY [223]
Compatibility with Values andBeliefs [223]
Compatibility with Previously Introduced Ideas [224]
Compatibility with Needs [225]
Compatibility and Rate of Adoption [226]
Technology Clusters [226]
Naming an Innovation [227]
Positioning an Innovation [228]
COMPLEXITY [230]
TRIAL ABILITY [231]
OBSERVABILITY [232]
EXPLAINING RATE OF ADOPTION [232]
THE DIFFUSION EFFECT [234]
OVERADOPTION [236]
SUMMARY [238]
Chapter 7 INNOVATIVENESS AND ADOPTER
CATEGORIES [241]
CLASSIFYING ADOPTER CATEGORIES ON THE BASIS OF INNOVATIVENESS [242]
The S-Curve of Adoption and Normality [243]
The Method ofAdopter Categorization [245]
ADOPTER CATEGORIES AS IDEAL TYPES [247]
Innovators: Venturesome [248]
Early Adopters: Respectable [248]
Early Majority: Deliberate [249]
Late Majority: Skeptical [249]
Laggards: Traditional [250]
CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOPTER CATEGORIES [251]
Socioeconomic Characteristics [251]
Personality Variables [257]
Communication Behavior [258]
A Summary of the Characteristics of Adopter Categories [259]
The Innovativeness-Needs Paradox [263]
PREDICTING INNOVATIVENESS WITH MULTIPLE CORRELATION TECHNIQUES [265]
COMPUTER SIMULATION OF INNOVATION DIFFUSION [267]
SUMMARY [268]
Chapter 8 OPINION LEADERSHIP AND DIFFUSION NETWORKS [271]
MODELS OF MASS-COMMUNICATION FLOWS [272]
Hypodermic Needle Model [272]
The Two-Step Flow Model [272]
HOMOPHILY-HETEROPHILY AND THE FLOW OF COMMUNICATION [274]
Homophily-Heterophily [274]
Homophily as a Barrier to Diffusion [275]
MEASURING OPINION LEADERSHIP AND NETWORK LINKS [277]
CHARACTERISTICS OF OPINION LEADERS [281]
External Communication [282]
Accessibility [282]
Socioeconomic Status [282]
Innovativeness [284]
Innovativeness, Opinion Leadership, and System Norms [284]
MONOMORPHIC AND POLYMORPHIC OPINION LEADERSHIP [288]
DIFFUSION NETWORKS [293]
Communication Network Analysis [294]
The-Strength-of- Weak-Ties [295]
Who Is Linked to Whom in Networks? [299]
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY [304]
Contrasting Social Learning andDiffusion [305]
Horizons for Social Modeling [307]
SUMMARY [307]
Chapter 9 THE CHANGE AGENT [312]
CHANGE AGENTS AS LINKERS [313]
THE SEQUENCE OF CHANGE AGENT ROLES [315]
FACTORS IN CHANGE AGENT SUCCESS [317]
Change Agent Effort [317]
Change Agency Versus Client Orientation [318]
Compatibility with Clients’ Needs [319]
Change Agent Empathy [327]
HOMOPHILY AND CHANGE AGENT CONTACT [321]
Change Agent Contact with Lower-Status Clients [323]
Paraprofessional Aides [325]
Change Agent Credibility [328]
InauthenlicProfessionalization of Aides [331]
OPINION LEADERS [331]
CLIENTS’ EVALUATIVE ABILITY [332]
CENTRALIZED AND DECENTRALIZED DIFFUSION SYSTEMS [333]
The Classical Diffusion Model [333]
Comparing Centralized Versus Decentralized Diffusion Systems [334]
Advantages and Disadvantages of Decentralized Diffusion [337]
SUMMARY [343]
Chapter 10 INNOVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS [347]
ORGANIZATIONS [348]
ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIVENESS [355]
Shortcomings of Organizational Innovativeness Studies [356]
Size and Organizational Innovativeness [358]
Structural Characteristics and Organizational Innovativeness [359]
STAGES IN THE INNOVATION PROCESS IN ORGANIZATIONS [361]
A Model ofthe Innovation Process in Organizations [362]
Time Sequence ofthe Stages in the Innovation Process [365]
SUMMARY [370]
Chapter 11 CONSEQUENCES OF INNOVATIONS [371]
A MODEL FOR STUDYING CONSEQUENCES [375]
WHY HAVEN’T CONSEQUENCES BEEN STUDIED MORE? [375]
CLASSIFICATIONS OF CONSEQUENCES [379]
Desirable Versus Undesirable Consequences [380]
Direct Versus Indirect Consequences [384]
Anticipated Versus Unanticipated Consequences [387]
EQUALITY IN THE CONSEQUENCES OF INNOVATIONS [391]
The Issue ofEquality in Development Programs [392]
The Communication Effects Gap and the Consequences ofDiffusion [394]
Gap-Widening Consequences of the Adoption of Innovations [398]
Social Structure and the Equality of Consequences [407]
Strategies for Narrowing Gaps [403]
Wider Gaps Are Not Inevitable [408]
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS [410]
Bibliography [414]
Name Index [441]
Subject Index [447]

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